Quoting and Citing your Sources
How to quote and cite your sources
There are many types of sources you may wish to use in support of arguments in your text.
For example, books, journals, newspapers, web pages (which may be online versions of journals, newspapers, etc.), videos, podcasts, blogs, and many others.
When you quote or paraphrase information in your text, you need to consider the authority of the source (is it a reliable source of information?).
See more on source evaluationGo to the How to Evaluate Sources page
on the research page.
2. The author
There may be more than one author (scientific papers often have many), or the author may be unknown.
For more information about citing and referencing authors in APA style see this YouTube video Watch the Video
3. Signal phrases
Signal phrases, sometimes called reporting phrases, introduce the quotation or paraphrase you cite in you text.
Signal phrases are important because they make it clear who said what, and because they can indicate your stanceAttitude or position on a particular matter. See the glossary definition
(whether you agree or disagree with he author you are quoting).
For more examples see the signal phrasesGo to the How to use Signal Phrases page
4. Quotation Marks
Quotation marksGo to the Quotation Marks page
, or speech marks help to show exactly what an author said and to separate this from your own words.
5. The Quoted Text.
For information about how to choose text to quote and how to style it, see the quotationsGo to the How to quote page
6. The Citation
For more examples of how to format in-text citations see the in-text citationsGo to the How to format in-text citations page
page. You can also view information about citations in APA style in this YouTube video Watch the Video
7. Citation Tools
For information about how to speed up your writing see the research tools section on the source managmentGo to the Source Management page