Quoting and Citing your Sources

How to quote and cite your sources


1. Sources

There are many types of sources you may wish to use in support of arguments in your text. For example, books, journals, newspapers, web pages (which may be online versions of journals, newspapers, etc.), videos, podcasts, blogs, and many others. When you quote or paraphrase information in your text, you need to consider the authority of the source (is it a reliable source of information?). See more on source evaluation on the research page.

2. The author

There may be more than one author (scientific papers often have many), or the author may be unknown. For more information about citing and referencing authors in APA style see this YouTube video.

3. Signal phrases

Signal phrases, sometimes called reporting phrases, introduce the quotation or paraphrase you cite in you text. Signal phrases are important because they make it clear who said what, and because they can indicate your stance (whether you agree or disagree with he author you are quoting). For more examples see the signal phrases page.

4. Quotation Marks

Quotation marks, or speech marks help to show exactly what an author said and to separate this from your own words.

5. The Quoted Text.

For information about how to choose text to quote and how to style it, see the quotations page.

6. The Citation

For more examples of how to format in-text citations see the in-text citations page. You can also view information about citations in APA style on YouTube.

7. Citation Tools

For information about how to speed up your writing see the research tools section on the research page.

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