Dictionary of Suffixes
the effect of the suffix
meaning of the suffix
examples of words using this suffix
comments regarding this suffix
forms an adjective from a noun
showing the qualities of, able to be
reasonable, suitable, comfortable, valuable, acceptable, remarkable, reliable, desirable, comparable, payable, notable, favourable, applicable, profitable, variable, respectable, miserable, fashionable
forms a noun
decade, blockade, lemonade
forms a noun
marriage, package, passage, percentage, storage, carriage, coverage, shortage, usage, voltage, heritage, drainage, patronage, pilgrimage, wreckage, postage, mileage, plumage, linkage, haulage, leverage, coinage, leakage, wastage, breakage
forms an adjective from a noun
national, political, central, personal, financial, natural, industrial, original, professional, traditional, physical, medical, essential, environmental, commercial, regional, official, technical, cultural, formal, substantial, educational, critical, historical, typical, agricultural, conventional, global, emotional, proposal, classical, constitutional, clinical, residential, musical, structural, occasional, universal, intellectual, imperial, experimental, spiritual, logical, electrical, marginal
-an (ian)
forms a noun or adjective from a noun
mainly nationality but also of an era or persuasion
Russian, European, Italian, American, Christian, African, Indian, Victorian, Roman, Asian, metropolitan, urban, Mediterranean, civilian, suburban, republican, spartan, utopian, cosmopolitan, darwinian, elizabethan, copernican, draconian, minoan, newtonian, trojan
-ana (iana)
forms a collective noun
a collection of
Victoriana, Churchilliana
forms a noun
performance, appearance, significance, assistance, maintenance, resistance, alliance, allowance, guidance, acceptance, assurance, attendance, disturbance, utterance, compliance, inheritance, ignorance, dominance
-ant (1)
forms a noun from a verb
assistant, defendant, protestant, servant, consultant, participant, assistant, applicant, accountant, inhabitant, variant
-ant (2)
forms an adjective from a verb
significant, relevant, dominant, pleasant
forms an adjective or noun
practitioner, believer in
librarian, humanitarian, authoritarian, agrarian, sectarian, utilitarian, vegetarian, egalitarian, proletarian, totalitarian, libertarian, antiquarian, parliamentarian, disciplinarian
-ary (1)
forms an adjective
necessary, military, primary, secondary, parliamentary, voluntary, monetary, revolutionary, evolutionary, disciplinary
-ary (2)
forms a noun
summary, dictionary, anniversary, subsidiary, vocabulary, commentary, primary
-ate (1)
forms a verb
concentrate, demonstrate, illustrate, generate, estimate, appreciate, dominate, separate, incorporate, locate, celebrate, negotiate, participate, allocate, communicate, evaluate, eliminate, anticipate, hesitate, integrate, translate, accommodate, initiate, stimulate, situate, educate, isolate, regulate, facilitate, decorate, contemplate, formulate, originate, compensate, circulate, activate, manipulate, dedicate, dictate, penetrate, motivate, differentiate, accumulate, terminate
-ate (2)
forms an adjective
appropriate, corporate, adequate, accurate, desperate, ultimate, delicate, legitimate, elaborate, deliberate, intermediate, fortunate, aggregate, intimate
-ate (3)
forms a noun
candidate, certificate, estimate, graduate, delegate, associate, electorate
forms a noun from a verb
information, education, situation, application, operation, population, relation, association, organisation, communication, consideration, generation, legislation, administration, investigation, regulation, conversation, explanation, examination, concentration, implication, conservation, publication, location, interpretation, combination, variation, foundation, representation, observation, creation, negotiation, expectation, inflation, corporation, formation, accommodation, preparation, obligation, recommendation, reputation, presentation, qualification, equation, demonstration, compensation, occupation, indication, implementation, evaluation, consultation, determination, imagination, limitation, participation, conservation, taxation, innovation, integration, resignation, registration, declaration, allocation, identification, invitation, calculation, federation, illustration, allegation, celebration, specification, transformation, discrimination, restoration, separation, justification, classification, duration, sensation, speculation, isolation, modification, installation, delegation, liberation, radiation, motivation, correlation, translation, frustration, exploration, reservation, circulation, alteration, destination, valuation, revelation, migration, inspiration, collaboration, decoration, donation, privatisation, appreciation, telecommunication, configuration, exploitation, aspiration, relaxation, temptation, cooperation, confrontation, congregation, documentation, complication, orientation, confirmation, accusation, quotation, adaptation, salvation, preservation, formulation, immigration, vegetation
forms an adjective
conservative, alternative, negative, relative, administrative, creative, legislative, representative, comparative, imaginative, innovative
forms an adverb
relatively, alternatively, comparatively
forms a noun
operator, indicator, administrator, commentator, predator, spectator, investigator
forms a noun
killer, killing
suicide, pesticide, homicide, genocide, insecticide, fungicide, herbicide
forms a noun
form of government
democracy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, autocracy, meritocracy
forms a noun
supporter of type of government
democrat, aristocrat, bureaucrat, autocrat
forms a noun
condition, quality
policy, agency, efficiency, tendency, frequency, constituency, pregnancy, redundancy, accuracy, legacy, presidency, conspiracy, bankruptcy, privacy, deficiency
forms a noun
condition, state
freedom, kingdom, wisdom, boredom, Christendom, stardom, martyrdom, officialdom, earldom
-ed (-d)
forms the past tense and past participle of a verb
looked, used, worked, needed, seemed, asked, showed, tried, called, provided, turned, followed, liked, helped, started, moved, played, paid, heard, included, believed, allowed, lived
-ed (-d)
forms an adjective
concerned, interested, united, limited, detailed, increased, married, prepared, surprised, pleased, tired, proposed, worried, armed, fixed, advanced, disabled, satisfied, related, complicated, unemployed, entitled, delighted, convinced, sophisticated, expected, improved, marked, experienced, unexpected, disappointed, frightened, established, closed, mixed, required, confused, associated, coloured, skilled
forms a noun from a verb
person connected with or affected by the verb
employee, refugee, trustee, referee, trainee, mortgagee, nominee, lessee, addressee, assignee, absentee, interviewee, licensee, transferee, devotee, divorcee, franchisee, payee, evacuee
forms a noun from a noun
person who works with
engineer, volunteer, auctioneer, mountaineer, pamphleteer, puppeteer
-en (1)
forms a verb from an adjective
cause to be
tighten, widen, weaken, straighten, soften, broaden, lessen, loosen, shorten, harden, sharpen, lighten, deepen, worsen, brighten, flatten, fasten, stiffen, ripen, quicken, thicken, darken, fatten, sweeten, slacken, toughen, freshen, blacken, smarten, liken, moisten, deaden, cheapen, redden, deafen, gladden, sadden, steepen, tauten, whiten
-en (2)
forms the past participle of some verbs
taken, given, written, fallen, spoken, broken, chosen, driven, risen, proven, eaten, forgotten, arisen, shaken, beaten, stricken, hidden, undertaken, ridden, stolen, woken, sunken, bitten, forgiven, frozen, bidden, stridden, mistaken, woven, swollen, striven, awoken, befallen, begotten, betaken, cloven, forbidden, forsaken, graven, laden, molten, misgiven, outridden, overridden, overtaken, partaken, rewritten, riven, shaven, shrunken, shriven, smittten, thriven, trodden
-en (3)
forms an adjective from a noun
made of
golden, wooden
forms a noun from a verb
difference, conference, reference, confidence, existence, preference, residence, correspondence, interference, occurrence, dependence
-ent (1)
forms a noun from a verb
student, president, resident, correspondent, constituent, respondent, precedent
-ent (2)
forms an adjective from a verb
excellent, sufficient, apparent, recurrent, prevalent
-er (1)
forms a noun from a verb
person who performs the action of the verb
teacher, manager, worker, leader, player, user, speaker, reader, owner, driver, writer, employer, farmer, consumer, winner, manufacturer, supporter, buyer, holder, producer, researcher, dealer, adviser, supplier, observer, publisher, lover, designer, printer, traveller, commander, purchaser, maker, seller, commissioner, voter, server, miner, singer, painter, receiver, developer, reporter, carrier, builder, offender, defender, killer, trainer, trader, photographer, rider, striker, fighter, carer, organiser, keeper, drawer, founder, ruler, runner, composer, banker, lecturer, dancer, viewer, gardener, sufferer, learner, promoter, marker, follower, controller, recorder, planner, cleaner, provider, murderer, listener, bomber, performer, bowler
-er (2)
forms the comparison of an adjective
higher, greater, lower, older, later, larger, smaller, younger, wider, longer, bigger, stronger, cheaper, closer, shorter, harder, broader, deeper, faster, simpler, safer, poorer, clearer, weaker
adjective of more than two syllables form their comparatives with 'more': 'more important', 'more general'
-er (3)
forms a noun from a noun
practiser of
lawyer, philosopher, butcher, astronomer
-ery (1)
forms a noun
the art, practice of
robbery, cookery, mastery, bribery, forgery, adultery, confectionery, archery, joinery, butchery, treachery, sorcery, tomfoolery, buffoonery
-ery (2)
forms a noun
gallery, surgery, nursery, brewery, bakery, refinery
forms an adjective from a proper noun
of a place or country (especially person or language)
Japanese, Chinese
forms an adjective from a noun
in the manner, style of
picturesque, romanesque, grotesque, statuesque
forms a noun from a noun or a verb
princess, actress, mistress, duchess, goddess, hostess, waitress, heiress, governess, marquess, manageress, baroness, mayoress, priestess, lioness, stewardess, tigress, sorceress, murderess
forms the superlative of an adjective or adverb
latest, largest, greatest, highest, biggest, nearest, earliest, lowest, finest, oldest, youngest, smallest, eldest, strongest, simplest, slightest, longest, easiest, closest, fastest, poorest, cheapest, richest, deepest, hardest, newest, dearest, shortest, widest, commonest, happiest, safest, toughest
adjective of more than two syllables form their superlatives with 'most': 'most important', 'most general', etc.
forms a noun from a noun
small, compact
cigarette, statuette, kitchenette, maisonette
forms an adjective from a verb ending in ‘fy’
specific, terrific, horrific, pacific
forms an adjective from a cardinal number
multiplied by
twofold, threefold, hundredfold
forms an adjective
uniform, cruciform, spongiform, cuneiform, stratiform
-ful (1)
forms an adjective from a noun or a verb
showing the quality of, full of, evoking
successful, useful, beautiful, powerful, careful, wonderful, helpful, awful, painful, peaceful, dreadful, doubtful, colourful, cheerful, delightful, faithful, meaningful, harmful, hopeful, fearful, thoughtful, lawful, youthful, skilful, graceful, plentiful, forceful, thankful, stressful, disgraceful, wasteful, rightful
-ful (2)
forms a noun from a noun
a quantity of
handful, mouthful, spoonful, fistful, teaspoonful, armful, plateful, hatful, bucketful, roomful, skinful, sackful, tankful, houseful, cupful, earful, eyeful, forkful, lungful, pocketful, shovelful
-fy (-ify)
forms a verb from a noun or adjective
cause to be
clarify, simplify, purify, solidify, intensify, diversify, falsify, electrify, beautify, liquefy
Adjective is '-gamous': monogamous, etc.
forms a noun
type of marriage (number of wives or husbands)
monogamy, polygamy, bigamy
Adjective is '-gamous': monogamous, etc.
forms a noun
sides of a figure
polygon, hexagon, pentagon, octagon
forms a noun
the written form of
diagram, telegram, histogram, electrocardiogram, epigram, electroencephalogram
forms a noun
the written or visual form of
photograph, telegraph, autograph, epigraph
forms a noun from a noun
status, state of being
childhood, neighbourhood, likelihood, adulthood, motherhood, brotherhood, livelihood, parenthood, priesthood, manhood, boyhood, womanhood, falsehood, statehood, widowhood, nationhood, fatherhood, sisterhood, unlikelihood
forms an adjective from a noun
characteristic of
financial, industrial, material, essential, commercial, substantial, official, residential, judicial, imperial, presidential, controversial, artificial, influential, partial, provincial, colonial, racial, beneficial, managerial, spatial, territorial, confidential, ministerial, trivial, superficial, bacterial, aerial, facial, entrepreneurial, serial, radial, sequential, differential, remedial, matrimonial, preferential
-ian (-an)
forms a noun or an adjective from a proper noun
mainly nationality but also of an era or persuasion
Russian, European, Italian, American, Christian, African, Indian, Victorian, Roman, Asian, metropolitan, urban, Mediterranean, civilian, suburban, republican, spartan, utopian, cosmopolitan, darwinian, elizabethan, copernican, draconian, minoan, newtonian, trojan
forms an adjective from a noun
democratic, scientific, academic, dramatic, electronic, strategic, linguistic, ethnic, historic, automatic, organic, romantic, diplomatic, realistic, genetic, systematic, artistic, magnetic, enthusiastic, symbolic, olympic, Islamic, optimistic, gothic, aesthetic, fantastic, atomic, psychiatric, bureaucratic, photographic, synthetic, characteristic, problematic, diagnostic, demographic, poetic, energetic, volcanic, pathetic, graphic, heroic, geometric, periodic, patriotic, athletic, stylistic, aristocratic, rhythmic, alcoholic, chaotic, traumatic, climatic, cubic, metallic

forms an adverb with '-ally': democratically, scientifically, academically, dramatically ...
forms a noun from a noun
someone concerned with the NOUN
politician, musician, physician, technician, magician, electrician, mathematician, paediatrician, optician, statistician, obstetrician, tactician, beautician, dietician
forms a noun
science, field of activity or study
politics, statistics, economics, mathematics, physics, electronics, mechanics, ethics, linguistics, classics, semantics, genetics, aesthetics, cosmetics, pragmatics, logistics, aerobics, optics, stylistics, acoustics, thermodynamics, metaphysics, tectonics, gymnastics, avionics
forms a noun
a chemical compound<
dioxide, oxide, chloride, monoxide, peroxide, sulphide, polypeptide, nucleotide, hydroxide, cyanide

showing the qualities of, able to be
accessible, flexible, credible, permissible, discernible, convertible, admissible, reversible, comprehensible, perceptible, forcible, defensible, submersible, divisible, reproducible, reducible, digestible, combustible, expressible, collapsible, transmissable, suggestible
-ie (-y)
forms a noun
forms a familiar, joky or childish form of some nouns
auntie, aussie, birdie, sweetie, laddie, budgie, nightie, freebie, goalie, girlie, doggie, chappie, footie, hankie, baddie, goodie, thingie
forms the comparative of many adjectives
earlier, easier, happier, heavier, healthier, drier, busier, prettier, luckier, funnier, livelier, nastier, angrier, speedier, friendlier, trickier, dirtier, riskier, gloomier, lovelier, hungrier, mightier, uglier
adjective of more than two syllables form their comparatives with 'more': 'more important', 'more general'
forms the superlative of many adjectives
earliest, easiest, happiest, heaviest, busiest, funniest, prettiest, tiniest
adjective of more than two syllables form their superlatives with 'most': 'most important', 'most general'
forms the present participle or gerund of a verb
looking, making, using, taking, getting, trying, saying
-ise (-ize)
forms a verb
cause to be, change into
realise, minimise, maximise, materialise, stabilise, visualise, generalise, modernise, finalise, rationalise, symbolise
-ish (1)
forms an adjective
in the style, manner of
foolish, childish, sluggish, feverish, boyish, bullish, girlish, sheepish, hellish, devilish, amateurish, nightmarish, snobbish, fiendish, slavish, ghoulish, roguish, impish, wolfish
-ish (2)
forms an adjective from the name of nation
describes nationality
English, Spanish, Polish, Turkish, Swedish, Danish
-ish (3)
forms an adjective from an adjective
approximately, near
reddish, greenish, yellowish, longish, smallish, brownish, whitish, greyish, pinkish, youngish, blackish, biggish, largish, newish
-ism (1)
forms a noun
movement, belief, political system
capitalism, socialism, racism, nationalism, communism, marxism, feminism, terrorism, fascism, liberalism, conservatism, imperialism, pluralism, individualism, symbolism, idealism, modernism, sexism, patriotism, materialism, radicalism, pragmatism, Buddhism, positivism, structuralism, altruism, colonialism, romanticism, consumerism, cubism, mysticism, humanism, evangelism, protestantism, federalism, hinduism, feudalism, corporatism, postmodernism, catholicism, fundamentalism, utilitarianism
-ism (2)
forms a noun
showing the qualities of
realism, optimism, scepticism, professionalism, vandalism, cynicism, antagonism, alcoholism, hooliganism, altruism, pessimism
Others do not fall into either category: criticism, mechanism, tourism, organism, journalism, metabolism, baptism, absenteeism, magnetism
-ist (1)
forms a noun
person occupied in a particular activity
artist, scientist, tourist, specialist, economist, chemist, therapist, novelist, guitarist, dentist, psychologist, receptionist, psychiatrist, pianist, motorist, physicist, physiotherapist, pathologist, anthropologist, cyclist, sociologist, organist, biologist, archaeologist, theorist, soloist, medallist, columnist, geologist, linguist, pharmacist, florist, violinist, bassist, botanist, finalist, gynaecologist
-ist (2)
forms a noun
follower of a movement, belief or political system
terrorist, nationalist, socialist, realist, pacifist, capitalist, anarchist, feminist, leftist, pragmatist, perfectionist
-ist (3)
forms a noun from an '-ize' verb
agent of an 'ize' verb
antagonist, monopolist
-ite (1)
forms a noun from a proper noun
follower of a particular organisation, cult or sect
Jacobite, Maronite, Hashemite, Shiite, Trotskyite, Luddite
-ite (2)
forms a noun
graphite, calcite, lignite, dolomite, bauxite, anthracite, malachite, quartzite
forms a noun
inflammation of
colitis, hepatitis, arthritis, gastritis, pancreatitis, oesophagitis, meningitis, cholangitis, bronchitis, cystitis, appendicitis, duodenitis, dermatitis, gastroenteritis
forms a noun
security, activity, opportunity, majority, responsibility, ability, possibility, reality, liability, electricity, minority, priority, personality, publicity, mortality, stability, flexibility, availability, complexity, intensity, density, sensitivity, probability, equality, disability, mobility, diversity, maturity, sexuality, validity, popularity, hostility, morality, accountability, fertility, humanity
forms an adjective from a verb
effective, active, attractive, massive, extensive, competitive, negative, administrative, alternative, comprehensive, impressive, creative, exclusive, progressive, selective, protective, defensive, decisive, innovative
-ize (ise)
forms a verb
cause to be, change into
realize, publicize, privatise
forms an adjective from a noun
without, lacking
endless, useless, homeless, helpless, hopeless, meaningless, harmless, countless, restless, careless, needless, pointless, breathless, powerless, motionless, worthless, stainless, timeless, jobless, lifeless, childless, fruitless, priceless, speechless, sleepless, senseless, limitless, cordless, colourless, effortless, defenceless, classless, fearless, expressionless, nameless, tireless, penniless, faceless, landless, heartless, seamless, painless, topless, merciless, featureless, shapeless, spotless, ceaseless, tasteless, flawless
1.The addition of 'ly' forms an adverb for some of these adjectives: hopelessly, helplessly, endlessly, relentlessly, effortlessly, carelessly, breathlessly, restlessly, mercilessly, aimlessly, needlessly, shamelessly, remorselessly, wordlessly, painlessly, uselessly, soundlessly, harmlessly, ceaselessly, etc. 2. The addition of 'ness' forms a noun for some of these adjectives: homelessness, helplessness, carelessness, hopelessness, restlessness, powerlessness, lawlessness, breathlessness, etc.
forms a noun from a noun
small, unimportant, diminutive
leaflet, booklet, piglet, starlet, eyelet
forms an adjective from a noun
similar to; in the manner, style of
businesslike, childlike, warlike, lifelike, workmanlike, ladylike, dreamlike, godlike, statesmanlike
forms a noun
smaller, younger version of; diminutive
duckling, seedling
Other words with a diminutive or disparaging meaning are: sibling, sprinkling, sapling, gosling, weakling, yearling, fledgling, princeling, hireling, starveling (all rarely used)
forms a noun
something spoken
dialogue, prologue, monologue, travelogue, epilogue
Also catalogue - a list (presumably originally spoken)
forms a noun
a branch of study
technology, psychology, sociology, theology, biology, geology, archaeology, anthropology, ecology, mythology, biotechnology, physiology, pathology, chronology, morphology, criminology, zoology
-ly (1)
forms an adverb from an adjective
probably, actually, particularly, usually, certainly, simply, clearly, finally, quickly, generally, suddenly, obviously, exactly, immediately, highly, directly, slightly, completely, normally, relatively, apparently, merely, slowly, possibly, currently, mainly, carefully, previously, entirely, extremely, fairly, increasingly, equally, surely, frequently, totally, absolutely, necessarily, seriously, widely, properly, closely, effectively, unfortunately
-ly (2)
forms an adjective from a noun
having the qualities, characteristics of
friendly, scholarly, heavenly, leisurely, earthly, oily, homely, ghostly, worldly, woolly, sickly, disorderly, steely, princely, cowardly, beastly, manly, priestly, masterly, godly, gentlemanly, saintly, pearly, brotherly, deathly, motherly, lordly, knightly, fartherly, miserly, womanly, kingly, painterly, sisterly, neighbourly
-ly (3)
forms an adjective from a noun
occurring regularly
weekly, monthly, yearly, hourly, quarterly, nightly
-man (1)
forms a noun
inhabitant of
Englishman, German, Frenchman
-man (2)
forms a noun
someone who performs a particular activity
chairman, spokesman, policeman, businessman, salesman, batsman, fisherman, statesman, barman, gunman, postman, clergyman, craftsman, fireman, sportsman, cameraman, seaman, milkman, workman, horseman, draftsman, watchman, tradesman, linesman, airman, countryman, boatman
forms a noun
abnormal enthusiasm or behaviour
megalomania, kleptomania
forms a noun from a verb
action of the VERB
development, management, movement, agreement, treatment, investment, employment, statement, equipment, argument, assessment, commitment, payment, settlement, appointment, improvement, involvement, establishment, retirement, requirement, judgment, arrangement, replacement, excitement, announcement, punishment, entertainment, amendment, measurement, recruitment, disappointment, encouragement, imprisonment, adjustment, enforcement, embarrassment, engagement, advertisement, assignment, enjoyment, resentment, amusement, attainment, placement
1. The addition of 'al' forms an adjective from some of these nouns: experimental, developmental, governmental, judgmental, etc. 2. The addition of 'ally' forms an adverb:experimentally, developmentally, incrementally, etc.
forms a noun
instrument for measuring
barometer, thermometer, spectrometer, voltmeter, speedometer, altimeter
forms a noun
a part or multiple of a metre
kilometre, centimetre, millimetre
forms a noun
someone who deals in, or promotes
fishmonger, ironmonger, cheesemonger, warmonger, scandalmonger
forms a superlative adjective from a preposition or adjective of position
uppermost, innermost, topmost, southernmost, outermost, northernmost, easternmost, westernmost, distalmost, dorsalmost, rearmost
Also: foremost, utmost, uttermost
forms a noun from an adjective
the quality or character of
awareness, illness, darkness, consciousness, effectiveness, weakness, happiness, fitness, goodness, sickness, willingness, madness, thickness, fairness, kindness, bitterness, readiness, loneliness, competitiveness, seriousness, usefulness, openness, richness, brightness, reasonableness, tenderness, blackness, closeness
forms a noun
system of government
democracy, autocracy, theocracy, technocracy
forms a noun
supporter of an 'ocracy'
forms an adjective or noun
in the shape, form of
asteroid, tabloid, humanoid, cuboid, spheroid, conchoid, toroid, ellipsoid, ovoid, fungoid
forms a noun from a verb
eone or something that carries out the action of the verb
director, editor, governor, visitor, inspector, actor, operator, processor, vendor, collector, investor, indicator, creditor, supervisor, reactor, surveyor, contractor, administrator, competitor, instructor, auditor, distributor, detector, creator, spectator, radiator, sailor, generator, prosecutor
Also: author, solicitor, chancellor, mayor, professor, emperor, successor, ambassador, tutor, debtor, counsellor, donor, predator, warrior, receptor, tractor, curator, rotor, sponsor
-ory (1)
forms an adjective
statutory, satisfactory, compulsory, advisory, regulatory, mandatory, contradictory, inflammatory, sensory, explanatory, introductory, respiratory, supervisory, preparatory, contributory, obligatory, predatory, exploratory, discriminatory, inhibitory, auditory, illusory
-ory (2)
forms a noun
place where a particular activity is carried out
factory, laboratory, lavatory, conservatory, repository, observatory, dormitory, refectory, depository
forms a noun
diagnosis, tuberculosis, fibrosis, prognosis, hypnosis, psychosis, sclerosis, cirrhosis, neurosis, thrombosis, necrosis, metamorphosis, stenosis, osteoporosis, symbiosis
forms an adjective
having the qualities of the NOUN
famous, dangerous, marvellous, mysterious, furious, disastrous, autonomous, vigorous, hazardous, rigorous, spacious, glamorous, luxurious, adventurous
The addition of 'ly' forms the adverb of some of these adjectives: dangerously, mysteriously, etc. 2. The addition of 'ness' forms a noun for a few of these adjectives: righteousness, spaciousness, etc.
forms a noun
(excessive) fear of
xenophobia, homophobia, claustrophobia, agoraphobia, photophobia
forms a noun
instrument for producing or recording sound
telephone, microphone, gramophone, saxophone, answerphone, headphone, megaphone, xylophone, cellphone, dictaphone, earphone
-s (1)
forms the plural of a noun
days, times, eyes, others, problems, services, months, words, areas, etc.
-s (2)
forms the third person singular of the present tense of a verb
seems, makes, comes, goes, means, takes, gives, etc.
forms a noun from a noun
stretch of scenery
landscape, townscape, seascape
forms a noun
instrument for observing or showing
microscope, telescope, kaleidoscope, stethoscope, endoscope
forms a noun from a noun
status, condition, skill
relationship, membership, championship, leadership, partnership, ownership, friendship, sponsorship, scholarship
forms an adjective from a noun
likely to produce the NOUN
troublesome, awesome, fearsome, quarrelsome
forms a noun
of a sphere, ball, the earth
atmosphere, hemisphere, lithosphere, stratosphere, biosphere, magnetosphere, asthenosphere, troposphere, ionosphere
forms a noun from a noun
someone connected with the NOUN
gangster, trickster, mobster, fraudster, pollster, tipster, prankster
forms a noun from an adjective
someone with the qualities of the ADJECTIVE<
-tion (-ation, -sion, -ition)
forms a noun from a verb
education, action, situation, production, population, association, application, operation, election, competition, direction, organisation, protection, collection, legislation, introduction, administration, organization, construction, distribution, communication, selection, recognition
forms a noun
attitude, magnitude, gratitude, altitude, multitude, amplitude, solitude, latitude, longitude, fortitude, ineptitude, rectitude, servitude
forms a noun from a noun
small version of
capsule, granule, nodule, globule, graticule
forms a noun from a verb
process of, condition of, product of
pleasure, exposure, departure, closure, creature, sculpture, fixture, seizure
forms an adjective or adverb
in the direction of
forward, inward, upward, downward, outward, backward, seaward, homeward, windward, landward, leftward, westward, northward, eastward, southward
forms an adverb
in the direction of
backwards, upwards, forwards, downwards, outwards, inwards, northwards, eastwards, southwards, westwards, skywards, seawards
-wise (1)
forms an adjective from a noun or an adjective
n the style, direction of
clockwise, anticlockwise, stepwise, lengthwise, crabwise
-wise (2)
forms an adjective from a noun or an adjective
in connection with
weatherwise, drinkwise, businesswise
-woman (1)
forms a noun
inhabitant of
Englishwoman, Frenchwoman
-woman (2)
forms a noun
someone who performs a particular activity
spokeswoman, policewoman, chairwoman, businesswoman, horsewoman, saleswoman, washerwoman, countrywoman, sportswoman, postwoman, airwoman, craftswoman, firewoman, yachtswoman
forms an adjective from a noun
an amount, value of
forms an adjective from a noun
deserving the NOUN
noteworthy, trustworthy, newsworthy, airworthy, praiseworthy, seaworthy, blameworthy, roadworthy, creditworthy
-y (-ie)
forms a noun from a noun
forms a familiar, joky or childish form of some nouns
mummy, daddy, telly, puppy, thingy, doggy, dolly, aunty, matey, softy, missy
Other 'familiar' words include: belly, tummy, bunny, buddy, lolly, brolly, welly, cabby, jiffy, loony, crony, pinny, ninny, cissy
-y (ey)
forms an adjective from a noun
bloody, lucky, worthy, lengthy, sunny, noisy, mighty, sandy, dusty, gloomy, tricky, sexy, rocky, muddy, speedy, greedy, windy, witty, sleepy, curly, hairy, greasy, shadowy, creamy, tasty, stormy, rusty, messy, bulky, hasty, grassy, stony, skinny, patchy, bony, watery, milky, misty, thirsty, cloudy, shady, oily, smelly, airy, silvery, needy, silky, chunky, trendy, fatty, rainy, hazy, frosty, snowy, sweaty, moody, leafy, spicy, smoky, fussy, glassy, weighty

See also the prefixes page.