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Adjectives: Participials

How participial adjectives are used in academic writing

Participial adjectives (-ed participials and -ing participials) are mainly derived from verbs. They serve as both attributive See the glossary definition and predicative See the glossary definition adjectives.

  • Starting about 65,000 to 50,000 years ago, more advanced attributive comparative adjective (-ed participial) technology noun phrase head started appearing [ ]. (Longrich 2020)
  • AI technologies are also a form of, but are internet-based attributive, compound adjective (noun + -ed participial) digital attributive adjective technology noun phrase head but are more advanced predicative adjective (comparative, -ed participial). (Shivhare 2019)
  • In fact, all animals do it – with some interesting attributive adjective (-ing participial) variations noun phrase head. (McMakin 2021)
  • While the complexity is real predicative adjective and interesting predicative adjective (-ing participial), ultimately, how to brew is a personal choice. (Beckett 2022)
  • Although there is a verb "to interest", the adjectives, interesting and interested, may be considered derivations from the noun. Often, where the adjective contains a prefix the derivation is more remote:

  • For now, these questions remain unanswered predicative adjective (-ed participial). (Beaty 2018)
  • There is no verb "to unanswer"; it derives from the verb "to answer" with the negative prefix "un-". In fact, "answered" as an adjective is rare ("answered question" is one possibility) but unanswered has more collocates: unanswered posts, questions, messages, points, threads, prayers ...

    Participial Adjectives also occur in adjectival compounds See the glossary definition:

  • Plant-eating compound adjective (noun + -ing participial) animals noun phrase head would have struggled to stay alive. (Poropat 2020)
  • The compound in this example consists of a noun + participial adjective. Participial compounds are often found in academic prose because, like complex noun phrases, they pack a lot of information into a short space.

    Further Examples

  • It is an exciting and fascinating attributive -ing participial adjectives idea noun phrase head. (Smart 2022)

  • Researchers call it infant-directed compound adjective (noun + -ed participial) speech noun phrase head. (Lam-Cassettari 2019)

  • In other words, the heated attributive adjective (-ed participial) air noun phrase head is less dense predicative, comparative adjective) (Sherwood 2023)

  • When do we become left-handed predicative adjective (adjective + -ed participial) or right-handed predicative adjective (adjective + -ed participial)? (Barton and Todorovic 2021)
  • These are adjectival compounds. In this case, "handed" derives from a noun.

  • It makes a quiet attributive adjective, high-pitched attributive compound adjective (adjective + -ed participial) rustling attributive -ing participial adjective sound noun phrase head. (Job 2021)

  • Is there a better comparative adjective way noun phrase head to support a well-informed compound adjective (adverb + -ed participial society noun phrase head? (Ashley 2019)

  • Another example is the complex attributive adjective thinking noun phrase head you need to do when playing a fast-moving compound adjective (adverb + -ing participial) video game noun phrase head. (Chater 2019)

  • Microbes are living attributive adjective (-ing participial) single-celled attributive adjective (adjective + -ed participial) creatures noun phrase head surrounded postposed adjective (-ed participial, complemented by a prepositional phrase) by a membrane. (Noll 2023)

  • See more examples of participial adjectives See the glossary definition and adjectival compounds See the glossary definition in the glossary.
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